Dental Terms

Dental Implant Boardman

A dental implant is an artificial tooth root replacement and is used in prosthetic dentistry. There are several types of dental implants; the most widely accepted and successful is the osseointegrated implant, based on the discovery by Swedish Professor Per-Ingvar Br?nemark that titanium can be successfully fused into bone when osteoblasts grow on and into the rough surface of the implanted titanium. This forms a structural and functional connection between the living bone and the implant. A variation on the implant procedure is the implant-supported bridge, or implant-supported denture.

If one or more of your teeth are missing, there are a number of ways to replace them. An alternative to bridges, partials or complete dentures may be dental implants. Implants are used to replace missing roots and support artificial replacement teeth. They are comfortable and look like natural teeth.

What are dental implants?

A dental implant is an artificial root made of titanium metal. It is inserted into the jawbone to replace the root of the natural tooth. An artificial replacement tooth is attached to the implant. The implant acts as an anchor to hold the replacement tooth in place.

Who does this procedure?

If you are having an implant, Dr. Nogay may refer you to a dental specialist who has further training in this area. Specialists who place implants are periodontists or oral and maxillofacial surgeons, also called oral surgeons. Specialists who place crowns, bridges and dentures on implants are called prosthodontists.

Who can get dental implants?

If you are in good general health, have healthy gums and have enough bone in the jaw to hold an implant, dental implants might be right for you. If your jawbone has shrunk or if it has not developed normally, you may be able to have a bone graft to build up the bone. A bone graft is a way of adding new bone to your jawbone. Dr. Nogay or dental specialist will tell you if bone grafting can be done.

Procedure

A typical implant consists of a titanium screw (resembling a tooth root) with a roughened surface. This surface is treated either by plasma spraying, etching or sandblasting to increase the integration potential of the implant. An osteotomy or precision hole is carefully drilled into jawbone and the implant is installed in the osteotomy.

Implant surgery is typically performed as an outpatient under general anesthesia or with Local anesthesia by trained and certified clinicians including general dentists, oral surgeons, and periodontists. An increasing number of general or cosmetic dentists as well as prosthodontists are also placing implants in relatively simple cases. The most common treatment plan calls for several surgeries over a period of months, especially if bone augmentation (bone grafting) is needed to support implant placements. At the other end of the surgery scale, some patients can be implanted and restored in a single surgery, in a procedure labeled "immediate function" and "teeth in an hour."

A single implant procedure that involves an incision and "flapping" of the gum or gingiva (to expose the jawbone) takes about an hour, sometimes longer; multiple implants can be installed in a single surgical session lasting several hours. At the conclusion, the patient goes through a period of recovery, returns to consciousness and is sent home with a spouse or friend.

Healing and integration of the implant(s) with jawbone occurs over several months in a process called osseointegration. At the appropriate time, the restorative or cosmetic dentist or prosthodontist uses the implant(s) to anchor crowns or a prosthetic restoration containing several "teeth". Since the implants supporting the restoration are integrated, which means they are biomechanically stable and strong, the patient is immediately able to masticate (chew) normally.

In an immediate function procedure, the gingiva is not flapped (Flapless). Instead, the surgeon removes a small plug of gingiva directly over the drilling site. The site is drilled and the implant is installed. Then a crown is immediately added. Patients are cautioned to give their new "teeth in an hour" ample healing/integration time (weeks or months) before attempting normal mastication.

There are different approaches to place dental implants after tooth extraction. The approaches are:

  1. Immediate post-extraction implant placement.
  2. Delayed immediate post-extraction implant placement (2 weeks to 3 months after extraction).
  3. Late implantation (3 months after tooth extraction).

According to the timing of loading of dental implants, the procedure of loading could be classified into:

  1. Immediate loading procedure.
  2. Early loading (1 week to 12 weeks).
  3. Staged loading (3-6 months).
  4. Late loading (more than 6 months).

Most patients need the longer treatment plan, which has an excellent history going back many years. Before surgery, with the patient fully awake or during an earlier office visit, a prudent clinician planning mandibular implants will conduct a neurosensory examination to rule out altered sensation, thus setting a base line on nerve function. Also prior to surgery, a panoramic X-ray will be taken using a metal ball of known dimension so that calibrated measurements can be made from the image (to accurately locate "vital structures" such as nerves and the position of critical anatomical features such as the mental foramen, which is the transit point in the jawbone for the nerve which innervates the lip and chin).

At edentulous (without teeth) jaw sites, a pilot hole is bored into the recipient bone, taking care to avoid vital structures (in particular the inferior alveolar nerve or IAN within the mandible). A zone of safety, usually 2 mm, is the standard of care for avoiding vital structures like the IAN. When computed tomography (3D X-ray imaging) is used preoperatively to accurately pinpoint vital structures, the zone of safety may be reduced to 1 mm through the use of computer-aided design of surgical guides.

Drilling into jawbone usually occurs in several separate steps. The pilot hole is expanded by using progressively wider drills (typically between three and seven successive drilling steps, depending on implant width and length). Care is taken not to damage the osteoblast or bone cells by overheating. A cooling saline spray keeps the temperature of the bone to below 47 degrees Celsius (approximately 117 degrees Fahrenheit). The implant screw can be self-tapping, and is screwed into place at a precise torque so as not to overload the surrounding bone (overloaded bone can die, a condition called osteonecrosis, which may lead to failure of the implant to fully integrate or bond with the jawbone). Typically in most implant systems, the osteotomy or drilled hole is about 1mm deeper than the implant being placed, due to the shape of the drill tip. Surgeons must take the added length into consideration when drilling in the vicinity of vital structures.

Once properly torqued into the bone, a cover screw is placed on the implant, then the gingiva or gum is sutured over the site and allowed to heal for several months for osseointegration to occur between the titanium surface of the implant and jawbone.

After several months the implant is uncovered in another surgical procedure, usually under local anesthetic by the restorative dentist or prosthodontist, and a healing abutment and temporary crown is placed onto the implant. This encourages the gum to grow in the right scalloped shape to approximate a natural tooth's gums and allows assessment of the final aesthetics of the restored tooth. Once this has occurred a permanent crown will be fabricated and placed on the implant.

An increasingly common strategy to preserve bone and reduce treatment times includes the placement of a dental implant into a recent extraction site. In addition, immediate loading is becoming more common as success rates for this procedure are now acceptable. This can cut months off the treatment time and in some cases a prosthetic tooth can be attached to the implants at the same time as the surgery to place the dental implants.

In all of these approaches, computer-based guidance has thrust itself onto the treatment stage. Not only will 3D digital imagery yield critical treatment guidance, the digital data can be used to manufacture precision drilling guides, virtually eliminating surgical errors.

Complementary procedures

Sinus lifting is a common surgical intervention. The trained general dentist, oral surgeon, or periodontist thickens the inadequate part of atrophic maxilla towards the sinus with the help of bone transplantation or bone expletive substance and as a result creates a better quality bone site for the implantation.

Bone grafting will be necessary in cases where there is a lack of adequate maxillary or mandibular bone in terms of front to back (lip to tongue) depth or thickness; top to bottom height; and left to right width. Sufficient bone is needed in three dimensions to securely integrate with the root-like implant. Improved bone height -- which is very difficult to achieve -- is particularly important to assure ample anchorage of the implant's root-like shape because it has to support the mechanical stress of chewing, just like a natural tooth. If an implant is too shallow, chewing may cause a dangerous jawbone crack or full fracture.

Typically, implantologists try to place implants at least as deeply into bone as the crown or tooth will be above the bone. This is called a 1:1 crown to root ratio. This ratio establishes the target for bone grafting in most cases. If 1:1 or better cannot be achieved, the patient is usually advised that only a short implant can be placed and to not expect a long period of usability.

A wide range of grafting materials and substances may be used during the process of bone grafting / bone replacement. They include the patient's own bone (autograft), which may be harvested from the hip (iliac crest) or from spare jawbone; processed bone from cadavers (allograft); bovine bone or coral (xenograft); or artificially produced bonelike substances (calcium sulfate with names like Regeneform; and hydroxyapatite or HA, which is the primary form of calcium found in bone). The HA is effective as a substrate for osteoblasts to grow on. Some implants are coated with HA for this reason.

Bone graft surgery has its own standard of care. In a typical procedure, the clinician creates a large flap of the gingiva or gum to fully expose the jawbone at the graft site, performs one or several types of block and onlay grafts in and on existing bone, then installs a membrane designed to repel unwanted infection-causing microbiota found in the oral cavity. Then the gingiva is carefully sutured over the site. Together with a course of internal antibiotics and external antibiotic mouth rinses, the graft site is allowed to heal (several months).

The clinician typically takes a new panoramic x-ray to confirm graft success in width and height, and assumes that positive signs in these two dimensions safely predicts success in the third dimension, depth. Where more precision is needed, usually when mandibular implants are being planned, a 3D or cone beam X-ray may be called for at this point to enable accurate measurement of bone and location of nerves and vital structures for proper treatment planning. The same X-ray data set can be employed for the preparation of computer-designed placement guides.

Correctly performed, a bone graft produces live vascular bone which is very much like natural jawbone and is therefore suitable as a foundation for implants.

Success rates

Dental implant success is related to operator skill, quality and quantity of the bone available at the site, and also to the patient's oral hygiene. Various studies have found the 5 year success rate of implants to be between 90-95%. Patients who smoke experience significantly poorer success rates.

Failure

Failure of a dental implant is often related to failure to osseointegrate correctly. A dental implant is considered to be a failure if it is lost, mobile or shows peri-implant (after implant) bone loss of greater than 1.0 mm in the first year and greater than 0.2mm a year thereafter.

Dental implants are not susceptible to dental caries but they can develop a periodontal condition called peri-implantitis. The cause may be infection that was introduced during surgery; or failure by the patient to follow correct oral hygiene routines. In either case, inflammation in the bone surrounding the implant causes bone loss (recession) which ultimately may lead to failure, often evidenced by the ability to "spin" an implant.

Peri-implantitis is often dealt with pre-emptively by clinicians who prescribe a course of antibiotics in the days prior to surgery; and post-surgically with another course of antibiotics and special oral rinses. Since peri-implantitis is generally easy to see on standard panoramic and periapical X-rays, prudent clinicians who suspect the problem will take an X-ray soon after surgery, and again at staged intervals post-operatively.

Risk of failure is increased in smokers. For this reason implants are frequently placed only after a patient has stopped smoking as the treatment is very expensive. More rarely, an implant may fail because of poor positioning at the time of surgery, or may be overloaded initially causing failure to integrate. If smoking and positioning problems exist prior to implant surgery, clinicians often advise patients that a bridge or partial denture rather than an implant may be a better solution.

The market

There are over 100 dental implant companies available on the U.S. market. Notable companies include Bicon Dental Implants, BioHorizons, Nobel Biocare, Straumann, OsteoCare, Osteo-Ti, 3i, Zimmer, Astra Tech, Ankylos, Implant Direct, Intra-Lock, Lifecore, Bio-Lok and Diskimplant.

Specialists such as oral and maxillofacial surgeons and periodontists play a role in the placement of implant fixtures, however these procedures are not beyond the scope of general dentists or prosthodontists. Regardless of who places the implant, it is most appropriate for either a prosthodontist or general dentist to initiate and coordinate implant service, since they can best assess the merits of this treatment against other prosthetic options. However, the implantologist (the person performing the implant surgery) is ultimately responsible for correct placement in a co-treatment environment.

Call Johanna Nogay, DMD at (330) 953-1008 to book your appointment with Dr. Nogay. We are conveniently located at 8170 South Avenue, Suite 1 in Boardman, OH.

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8170 South Avenue, Suite 1
Boardman, OH 44512
(330) 953-1008
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